Insulin is a naturally occurring hormone that is released by the pancreas. The body’s cells need insulin to remove and use glucose from the blood. The cells use glucose to produce the energy they need to perform their functions. The researchers first gave a young diabetic an active pancreatic extract containing insulin in 1922, and in 1939 the Food & Drug Administration (FDA) approved insulin. At this point, the insulin for healing was obtained from the pancreas of beef and pork plus recombinant (human) technology. The FDA approved the first recombinant human insulin in 1982.
Insulin is an endocrine anabolic polypeptide that regulates the metabolic process of carbohydrates. It is a fast-acting drug that works very quickly. After using insulin, you should have a meal within 5 to 10 minutes. However, it is important to follow the doctor’s instructions.
Although it is the main active ingredient in the carbohydrate physiological state, it also has an effect on fat metamorphosis and changes the effect of the liver on accumulating or releasing glucose and on processing blood lipids and in other tissues such as fat and muscles. The extremely widespread amount of insulin affects the entire body. Insulin cannot be taken orally. Unlike many other medicines, insulin cannot be taken orally. It is taken as a subcutaneous injection of single-use syringes with needles, an insulin pump or insulin pens with repeated use using needles.
Insulin is excreted by pancreatic cell groups known as islet cells. The molecular weight of insulin is 5808 daltons and consists of 51 amino acid residues. Insulin is a fairly small protein that consists of two chains that are held together by disulfide bonds. Insulin is used medicinally to treat some types of diabetes mellitus. Patients with type 1 diabetes rely on external insulin to ensure adequate survival due to the absence of the hormone. Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus have insulin resistance, relatively low insulin production, or both; Some type 2 diabetics eventually need insulin when other treatments to control blood sugar levels are no longer acceptable.
The effects of insulin on the entire human metabolic process include the control of cellular uptake of certain substances, conspicuous glucose in muscle and adipose tissue, growth of DNA replication and protein synthesis by control of the amino acid uptake and modification of the activity of various enzymes. The insulin effects on body cells include increased fatty acid synthesis, increased glycogen synthesis, increased esterification of fatty acids, shortened proteinolysis, reduced lipolysis, reduced gluconeogenesis, increased amino acid intake, arterial muscle tone and increased potassium intake.
Be careful that your blood sugar does not get too low as this leads to hypoglycemia. The main symptoms of hypoglycemia are headache, nausea, hunger, confusion, sleepiness, weakness, dizziness, blurred vision, fast heartbeat, sweating, tremors or difficulty concentrating. Too high a blood sugar level also leads to hyperglycaemia. The main symptoms include increased thirst, loss of appetite, increased urination, nausea, vomiting, sleepiness, dry skin and dry mouth. Monitor your blood sugar level and ask the doctor how you can adjust insulin doses if the blood sugar level is too high or too low.
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